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英国生活指南:第五章

英语和美语

英国生活指南:第五章

翻译:Zoe骜  校对:Jellica

基本上你还没遇到英国人就已经听到他们在说“英语”了。起初,你可能会听不懂他们在说什么,他们也可能听不懂你在说什么。他们的口音会和你习惯了的有所不同,很多单词用法很奇怪或是明显有使用错误,但你会慢慢习惯这些。要知道在华盛顿,来自南部的速记员很难听懂来自新英格兰的业务主管的口令,而业务主管也听不懂速记员在说什么。

在英国,“上流社会”的人讲话口音都很相似。你会听到BBC(英国广播公司)的播音员播报,而播音员就是个很好的范例,因为他受过训练,使用“有教养的”口音说话。他会省略字母“r”的发音(和我们国家一些地区人们的做法一样)把“here”([hɪr],这儿)说成“hyah”([hɪə],这);他发banana时所有a都是开元音,和father里的a一样。不管你认为这有多好笑,你还是能听懂他们在说什么,他们也能听懂你讲的话。很快你就不会再觉得这样很好笑了。

在听一些方言时你会遇到更多的困难。但是英国西南部康沃尔郡的农民或村民也常常无法理解东北部的约克郡或者西北部的兰开夏郡的方言,如果知道这些,你也许会感到一些安慰。不过你们会学着相互去听懂对方的。

关于英式英语词汇的提示。英国俚语是需要你自己学习的。但是除了俚语,英国语言中仍有许多单词和我们使用的含义不同,许多通用物品都有不一样的名称。例如,英国人把rail-roads叫做railways; automobiles叫做motorcars;radios叫做 wireless sets。他们把railroad tie(枕木)叫做sleeper; freight car(货车)叫做 goods wagon;路面施工人员叫做navvy; Streetcar(有轨电车)叫做tram。汽车行业术语同样也非常不同。在英国语言中,light truck(轻型货车)叫做lorry; 车顶叫做 hood, 而在美语中我们把bonnet(发动机盖)叫做hood; 把Fenders(挡泥板)叫做 wings; Wrench(扳手)叫做 spanner。 Gas叫做petrol——好像真有这种东西一样。

语言差异会给你第一次休假带来一些小麻烦。你买garters(吊袜带,美语)时要找sock suspenders(吊袜带,英语);吊裤带是braces,不是suspenders。如果你排队去buy(买,美语为book)火车票或是到movies (电影院,美语为cinema)买电影票,你就要在售票处queuing(排队,发音为”cueing”);如果你想喝酒便捷,最好去询问最近的pub的位置;买药去 chemist’s, 买烟去tobacconist, 购置五金器具去 ironmonger’s。如果有英国人邀请你到家里做客,他会把apartment叫做flat。

你有时会在英国较好商店的广告上看到一种货币单位(在下一页没有标明)—基尼(发音类似”ginny”:[‘dʒini],”g” 的发音像发”go”:[gəʊ]一样用力),价值21先令或1英镑零1先令。实际使用中没有和它等值的硬币或纸币。基尼只是一种标价。

下面表格中没显示的硬币是英国苏弗林金币,与一英镑等价。你会在英国文学作品中读到过它,但估计你是不会看到的,所以可以不用管它。

度量衡:英国使用的长度和重量的测量单位和美国使用的基本相同。英国有英寸、英尺、码数、品脱、夸脱、加仑,等等。不过,你应该记住英国每加仑比美国每加仑多五分之一液体。

英国货币表

 

符号

铜币
符号 名称 英国价格 美国价格(近似值)
d 法新(稀少)  便士  美分
d 半便士(发音”hay-p’ny”)  便士 1美分
1d 便士 1 便士 2美分
3d

三便士 (发音”thruppence” 或 “thrup’ny bit”; 稀少)

3 便士 5 美分
银币
3d

三便士(发音”thruppence” 或 “thrup ‘ny bit”; 城市不多见).

3 便士 5 美分
6d 六便士 6 便士 10 美分
1s 先令 (或 “bob”) 12 便士 20 美分
2s 弗罗林 (相当稀少) 2先令 40 美分
2s. 6d 半克朗 (或 “2先令6便士”). 2先令 50 美分
5s 克朗 (稀少) 5先令 $1.00

 

纸币
10s. 10先令纸币 10 先令 (或 英镑). $2.00
1 1英镑纸币 20 先令 $4.00
5 5英镑纸币 5 英镑 $20.00

英文原文:

ENGLISH   VERSUS   AMERICAN    LANGUAGE 

ALMOST before you meet the people you will hear them speaking “English.” At first you may not under-stand what they are talking about and they may not

 

understand what you say. The accent will be different from what you are used to, and many of the words will be strange, or apparently wrongly used. But you will get used to it. Remember that back in Washington stenographers from the South are having a hard time to understand dictation given by business executives from New England and the other way around.

In England the “upper crust” speak pretty much alike. You will hear the news broadcaster for the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). He is a good example, be-cause he has been trained to talk with the “cultured1‘ accent. He will drop the letter “r” (as people do in some sections of our own country) and will say “hyah” in-stead of “here.” He will use the broad a pronouncing all the a’ s in “Banana” like the a in “father.”‘ However funny you may think this is, you will be able to under-stand people who talk this way and they will be able to understand you. And you will soon get over thinking it is funny.

You will have more difficulty with some of the local dialects. It may comfort you to know that a farmer or villager from Cornwall very often can’t understand a farmer or villager in Yorkshire or Lancashire. But you will learn—and they will  learn—to  understand  you.

 

Some Hints on British Words.    British slang is something

you will have to pick  up for yourself. But even apart from slang, there are many words which have different meanings from the way we use them and many common objects have different names. For instance, instead of rail-roads, automobiles, and radios, the British will talk about railways, motorcars, and wireless sets. A railroad tie is a sleeper. A freight car is a goods wagon. A man who works on the roadbed is a navvy. A streetcar is a tram. Automobile lingo is just as different. A light truck is a lorry. The top of a car is the hood. What we call the hood (of the engine) is a bonnet. The fenders arc wings. A wrench is a spanner. Gas is petrol—if there is any.

Your first furlough may find you in some small difficulties because of language difference. You will have to ask for sock suspenders to get garters and for braces instead of suspenders—if you need any. If you are standing in line to buy (book) a railroad ticket or a seat at the movies (cinema) you will be queuing (pronounced “cueing”) up before the booking office. If you want a beer quickly, you had better ask for the nearest pub. You will get your drugs at a chemist’s and your tobacco at a tobacconist, hardware at an ironmonger’s. If you are asked to visit somebody’s apartment, he or she will call it a flat.

A unit of money, not shown on the following page, which you will sometimes see advertised in the better stores is the guinea (pronounced “ginny” with the “g” hard as in “go”). It is worth 21 shillings, or one pound plus one shilling. There is no actual coin or bill of this value in use. It is merely a quotation of price.

A coin not shown in the above table is the gold sovereign, with a value of one pound. You will read about it in English literature but you will probably never see one and need not bother about it.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The measures of length and weight are almost the same as those used in America. The British have inches, feet, yards, pints, quarts, gallons, and so forth. You should remember, how-ever, that the English (or “Imperial”) gallon contains about one-fifth more liquid than the American gallon.

27

TABLE OF BRITISH CURRENCY

Symbol

Copper Coins
Symbol Name British value American value (approximate)
d farthing (rare)  penny  cent
d halfpenny (“hay-p’ny”)  penny 1cent
1d penny 1 penny 2 cents
3d threepence (”thruppence” or “thrup’ny bit”; rare) 3 pence 5 cents
Silver Coins
3d threepence (“thruppence” or “thrup ‘ny bit”; not common in cities). 3 pence 5 cents
6d sixpence 6 pence 10 cents
1s shilling (or “bob”) 12 pence 20 cents
2s florin (fairly rare) 2 shillings 40 cents
2s. 6d half crown (or “two and six”). 2 shillings 50 cents
5s crown (rare) 5shillings $1.00

 

Paper Currency
10s. 10-shilling note 10 shillings (or  pound). $2.00
1 pound note 20 shillings $4.00
5 5-pound note 5 pounds $20.00

 

英国生活指南:第五章
本作品采用知识共享署名-非商业性使用-禁止演绎进行许可。

英国生活指南:第五章:等您坐沙发呢!

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